Africa is the third continent by geographical extension. It is linked to the Asian continent by the Arabian peninsula although geographical studies claim that in half a million years this continent could be dislodged.
The African continent is made up of 54 countries. As a curiosity, it is the only territory that is found in the 4 hemispheres.
1. Birth of civilization
The theory states that homo sapiens (as well as the rest of the hominids) emerged from there more than 190,000 years ago and then spread to the rest of the continents.
2. Limits of the African continent
It borders the Mediterranean Sea (to the north), the Atlantic Ocean (to the west), the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean and Asia (to the east). It has a total area of 30,272,922 kilometers.
It has a population of 1.1 billion inhabitants throughout its territory. This continent is considered to be “the cradle of humanity” because, through genetic research, it was discovered that the entire human species comes from there. This origin locates the birth of civilization specifically south or east of Africa.
- In the southern part of the continent there are people of black race (Bushmen, Sudanese, Pygmies, Bantu, etc.) while in the southern part of Africa there are white or Caucasian people such as Arabs, Jews and Berbers.
- In the north of the Sahara there are immigrants from France and Spain.
- Finally, people of Hindu origin inhabit the eastern coast.
- As a curious fact, in North Africa its inhabitants are mostly adults, while in sub-Saharan Africa its inhabitants are younger. However, in the last decades the percentage of adults in this region has increased.
It is interesting to mention the population by sex since in North Africa the birth of men predominates over that of women. The opposite occurs south of the Sahara where female and black births are the majority.
4. Ethnic groups
You can basically distinguish 2 ethnic groups. Whites of the north, between which the hamitas and semitas are distinguished. Blacks from the south of the Sahara, where there are Bushmen, Sudanese, Hamito, Negroides (Bantus), etc.
Most of the countries in Africa are former colonies of the European Union. In fact it is called African Union. Its economic condition is of underdevelopment or developing. About 50% of its inhabitants are below the poverty line since they live on less than $ 1 per day.
Africa annually pays around 20,000 million dollars a year in concept of debt that contracted, mostly, in the decade of the ’90s.
- African savanna
Because it is crossed by the southern line, Africa has a basically tropical climate, although Mediterranean, desert, subtropical and tropical climates also stand out.
- Mediterranean climate: Temperate climates with dry and hot summers. The autumn and spring seasons are varied in terms of climate and rainfall.
- Desert climate: where annual rainfall does not exceed 250 mm per year.
- Subtropical climate: Mostly in the northern and southern part of the continent.
- Tropical climate: The region is benefited by abundant rainfall. The highest rainfall in the area (between 1500 and 200 mm per year) is found on both sides of the equatorial band. It also has a low thermal amplitude (average temperatures are 25-27 ° C).
7. Flora and fauna
- Wildlife of Africa: As for fauna, we find two different areas:
- North zone: Goats, sheep, camels and domestic animals predominate.
- South zone: It is found in sub-Saharan Africa. There are exotic and wild animals: elephants, cheetahs, buffalos, lions, hyenas, emu, ostrich, antelope, adax, hippos. In this region there are 1300 species of mammals, birds and reptiles.
- Flora of Africa: Bushes, trees and mosses predominate. The African palm stands out. Within the area near the mountains of Cameroon and Angola is a lush vegetation.
A curious feature of the flora exists a strange-looking plant similar to carnivorous plants called Hydnora africana. It grows under the ground and has a strange-looking flower that secretes a strange putrid smell to attract insects.
jungle – vegetable kingdom
The main religion is that which is included within the animistic belief that believe in the presence of spirits in animate objects as inanimate. Among which is Islam and Christianity.
9. Predominant languages
The main languages are French and Arabic but there are also native languages such as Swahili, Oromo, Hausa, Amharic, among others.
10. Type of currency
Although 41 types of coins co-exist, the official currency is the FCA that is used in 14 of the 54 countries of that continent.