What is Introversion and Extraversion? Information on Characteristic Behaviors, interpretation of Jung’s Theory.
Introversion and extraversion are two fundamental personality traits that shape the way we interact with the world. In this post, we’ll explore Carl Jung’s theory of introversion and extraversion and how it applies to our behavior and preferences. We’ll delve into the characteristic behaviors and tendencies of introverts and extraverts, such as social interaction, energy levels, and decision-making processes. Additionally, we’ll examine the benefits and challenges of each personality type and how to manage them in different contexts. Join us as we deepen our understanding of introversion and extraversion.
INTROVERSION-EXTRAVERSION, in psychology, is a concept used in measuring and describing personality. It was first proposed by Carl Jung, the founder of analytical psychology, in 1913. According to Jung, the direction of a person’s psychic energy (which he termed the libido) determines the degree of his introversion or extraversion. One is predominantly introverted if his interest and attention generally turn inward, toward his own thoughts and feelings; if his interest and attention are generally directed outward, toward other people and external stimuli, he is predominantly extraverted.
Jung held that each individual has characteristics of both introversion and extraversión, but that in most people one or the other trait is dominant. In accord with his conception of the unconscious as compensatory for the conscious, Jung maintained that conscious introversive impulses are balanced by unconscious extraversive ones, and vice versa. Neither trait is abnormal in itself, but Jung theorized that each was related to a neurosis and a psychosis: introversion to psychasthenia and schizophrenia, extraversión to hysteria and to manic-depressive reaction.
Jung maintained that the attitudes determined by one’s degree of introversion or extraversion are decisive in one’s social behavior. The typical extravert would be active, aggressive, quick to make decisions, and happiest when surrounded by people. The typical introvert, on the other hand, would be shy, secretive, and contemplative; he would be slow to make decisions, would enjoy solitude, and would be given to daydreaming. On a personality test of a sort that was once widely used he would tend to answer “yes” (whereas the extravert would tend to answer “no”) to such questions as these:
Do you often cross the street to avoid meeting someone?
Do you prefer novels or plays that analyze the motives of characters?
Would you be embarrassed if suddenly asked to be “stunt leader” at a large party?
Are you able to spend evenings at home and alone without being bored?
In company, would you prefer listening to being the center of attention?
Jung extended his theory of types to include not only introversion and extraversion, which he called attitude types, but also four functional types distinguished by the primacy in the individual of thought, feeling, sensation, or intuition.
Interpretation of Jung’s Theory:
Despite this elaboration, Jung’s typology was generally oversimplified. Although he had insisted on the presence of both introversive and extraversive tendencies in every person, psychological interest in his theory was dampened by the observation that any individual could behave introversively in one situation and extraversively in another. The currency of the theory among psychologists was further weakened by its popular abuse, which slighted human complexity by classifying individuals simply as introverts or extra verts. In fact, tests designed to measure introversion and extraversion indicate that people can no more usefully be categorized as introverted and extraverted than as intelligent or stupid. Most people are ambiverts, with characteristics of both tendencies nearly balanced; very few people approach either the introversive or the extraversive extreme.