#### Who was André-Marie Ampère? Information about French physicist André-Marie Ampère biography, life story, studies and contributions to science.

### André-Marie Ampère

André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836) was a French physicist and mathematician who is best known for his pioneering work in the field of electromagnetism. He made significant contributions to the understanding of the relationship between electricity and magnetism, laying the foundation for the development of modern electrical theory.

Ampère was born on January 20, 1775, in Lyon, France. He was the son of a wealthy merchant and received a rigorous education in mathematics and science from his father. Ampère began studying mathematics at an early age and went on to become a professor of mathematics at the École Polytechnique in Paris.

In addition to his work in mathematics, Ampère made important contributions to the study of electricity and magnetism. He discovered that an electric current produces a magnetic field, and he developed a mathematical formula, known as Ampère’s law, to describe the relationship between the two. He also invented the solenoid, a coil of wire that produces a magnetic field when an electric current passes through it.

Ampère’s work had a profound impact on the development of electrical theory and led to the creation of many important devices, including the electric motor and the generator. Today, the SI unit of electric current, the ampere, is named in his honor.

Ampère died on June 10, 1836, in Marseille, France. Despite his relatively short life, he left a lasting legacy in the fields of mathematics and physics and is regarded as one of the most important scientists of the 19th century.

#### Early Life and Education

André-Marie Ampère was born on January 20, 1775, in Lyon, France. His father was a prosperous businessman who encouraged his son’s early interest in mathematics and science. Ampère was homeschooled until he was 12 years old, after which he attended a local school in Lyon.

At the age of 17, Ampère went to Paris to study at the École Polytechnique, a prestigious institution of higher education founded during the French Revolution to train engineers and scientists for the French army. Ampère studied mathematics and physics at the École Polytechnique and graduated in 1799 with a degree in mathematics.

After completing his studies, Ampère returned to Lyon, where he worked as a tutor and continued his research in mathematics and physics. In 1802, he published a paper on the theory of partial differential equations, which earned him recognition as a leading mathematician.

In the years that followed, Ampère continued to conduct research in a wide range of fields, including electricity, magnetism, and chemistry. He became particularly interested in the relationship between electricity and magnetism and began to develop a mathematical theory to explain the phenomenon.

#### Studies and Contributions to Science

After returning to Lyon, André-Marie Ampère continued his research in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and other fields. He published papers on topics such as partial differential equations, optics, and the theory of equations. However, it was his work on electricity and magnetism that earned him lasting recognition.

In 1820, Ampère read about the experiments of Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted, who had shown that a magnetic field could deflect a compass needle. Ampère was intrigued by this phenomenon and began to study the relationship between electricity and magnetism. He discovered that a current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field, and that the direction of the field depends on the direction of the current. He also showed that two wires carrying currents in the same direction attract each other, while two wires carrying currents in opposite directions repel each other.

Ampère’s work on electricity and magnetism culminated in the publication of his masterpiece, “Mémoire sur la théorie mathématique des phénomènes électrodynamiques” (Memoir on the Mathematical Theory of Electrodynamics) in 1827. In this work, Ampère developed a mathematical theory of electromagnetism that explained the behavior of electric currents in terms of the magnetic forces they produced. He formulated a mathematical equation, known as Ampère’s law, that describes the relationship between the magnetic field produced by a current and the current itself.

Ampère’s work had a profound impact on the development of electrical theory and led to the creation of many important devices, including the electric motor and the generator. Today, the SI unit of electric current, the ampere, is named in his honor.

In addition to his contributions to electromagnetism, Ampère also made significant contributions to other areas of science. He studied the properties of crystals and discovered piezoelectricity, the ability of certain materials to produce an electric current when subjected to mechanical stress. He also conducted research in the fields of chemistry and biology, and made important contributions to the study of animal behavior.

Ampère’s work had a profound impact on the development of science and technology, and he is regarded as one of the most important scientists of the 19th century.

#### Death and Legacy

André-Marie Ampère died on June 10, 1836, in Marseille, France, at the age of 61. Despite his relatively short life, he left a lasting legacy in the fields of mathematics and physics.

Ampère’s work on electromagnetism had a profound impact on the development of electrical theory and led to the creation of many important devices, including the electric motor and the generator. His mathematical equations and formulas are still used today to calculate the behavior of electrical currents and magnetic fields.

Ampère’s work also laid the foundation for the development of the field of electrodynamics, which is the study of the interaction between electrically charged particles and electromagnetic fields. This field has applications in a wide range of fields, including telecommunications, electronics, and power generation.

Today, Ampère is remembered as one of the most important scientists of the 19th century. His contributions to mathematics, physics, and other fields have had a lasting impact on the development of science and technology, and his name lives on in the SI unit of electric current, the ampere.