History of lithium-ion batteries. Who invented the lithium-ion battery? What are they good for? What are the advantages of Lithium Ion batteries? Where to use?
The Lithium-Ion Battery project won the 2019 Nobel Prize in chemistry. This powerful and lightweight battery will be used in everything from electric vehicles to mobile phones, laptops to other electric vehicles that run on batteries. It will also be able to store wind and solar energy, thanks to some of its features.
This new technological device is used to power portable electronics used to listen to music, work, seek information, communicate. Lithium-Ion batteries can also enable electric cars to improve their battery status. Thus, battery usage in vehicles can increase over long distances.
Lithium Ion Battery History
During the oil crisis in the early 1970s, the foundation for Lithium-Ion batteries was laid. Stanley Wittingham worked to develop fossil fuel-free energy technologies. Meanwhile, starting to explore superconducting materials, Stanley discovered an energy-rich material to create an innovative case for the lithium battery. This material was invented at the molecular level from titanium disulfide, which has cavities that can accommodate interfering lithium ions.
The battery’s anode* is partially made of metallic lithium, which has a strong drive to release electrons. Such a situation was concluded with a battery with a potential slightly greater than two volts. However, in such a case the metallic lithium would be reactive and the battery too explosive to be unsuitable and therefore dangerous.
Another chemist after Stanley, John Goodenought, saw that the cathode (cathode: the opposite of anode) could have much greater potential when metal oxide was made instead of metal sulfide. Later, as a result of systematic research, he saw in 1980 that cobalt oxide with lithium ions intertwined could produce four volts. This was very important because it would lead to much more powerful batteries in the future.
Groundbreaking for the First Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery
Basically, with Goodneought’s cathode, Akiro Yashino* created the first commercially available lithium-ion battery in 1985. Instead of reactive lithium at the anode, the cathode used petroleum coke, a carbon material that mixes lithium ions such as cobalt oxide.
As a result, a light and durable battery has been invented that can be recharged hundreds of times without losing performance. When lithium-ion batteries and accumulators first entered the market in 1991, they made a very important contribution to human life. It has formed the building block of a fossil-free and wireless society.
Advantages of Lithium Ion Batteries
- They are light, the main reason for being light is the highest level of filling density of these batteries.
- They are very small and portable.
- These batteries have no memory effect. This means that these batteries do not need to be fully discharged to charge. At the same time, interrupting the charge does not have a bad effect on the battery.
- They are long lasting.
- They have a fast charging capacity.
- These batteries have high energy efficiency.
Disadvantages of Lithium-Ion Batteries
- The most obvious problem of this type of batteries is that their life starts from the date of manufacture. In other words, whether they are charged or not after production, their lifespan begins to shorten.
- A normal laptop battery at 100% charge and at 25°C will irreversibly lose 20% of its usable capacity.
- Lithium Ion batteries are very expensive.
- They may deteriorate when exposed to high temperature.
Anode: In electrical analysis, it is the + charged metal tip that is immersed in the liquid and allows the current to pass.
Akiro Yashino: This Japanese chemist is the inventor of the lithium-ion battery used in phones and laptops.
Petroleum coke: It is a solid fuel obtained by distillation of mineral coal, containing much less volatile matter than coal, and mostly found in industry.