What kind of planet is Jupiter? Properties of the planet Jupiter, its mass, temperature, distance from the Sun. Information about the planet Jupiter.
The planet Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and is two and a half times larger than all the other planets in the solar system combined. It consists primarily of gases and is therefore known as the “gas giant”.
- Mass (kg): 1.90 x 1027
- Diameter (km): 142,800
- Average Density (kg/m3): 1314
- Speed (m/s): 59500
- Average Distance from Sun: 5,203 AU (778,412,020 km)
- (Around itself)Rotation time (in Earth days): 0.41 (9.8 Earth hours)
- Period of orbit around the sun (in Earth years): 11.86
- Tilt (axis tilt degree): 3.08
- Orbit inclination (degrees): 1.3
- Orbital eccentricity (circular deviation): 0.048
- Average Surface Temperature (K): 120
- Atmosphere Components: 90% hydrogen, 10% helium, 0.07% methane
Facts About Jupiter
- Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in the solar system.
- Only the Sun, Moon and Venus are brighter. It is one of five planets visible to the naked eye from Earth.
- The ancient Babylonians were the first to see Jupiter. This was around the 7th or 8th century BC. Jupiter is named after the king of the Roman gods. To the Greeks, it represented Zeus, the god of thunder. The Mesopotamians viewed Jupiter as the god Marduk and the patron of the city of Babylon. The Germanic tribes considered this planet Donar or Thor.
- Jupiter has the shortest day of all planets. It rotates on its axis every 9 hours and 55 minutes. The rapid rotation slightly flattens the planet and gives it a flattened shape.
- Jupiter orbits the Sun every 11.8 Earth years.
- From our point of view on Earth, it seems to move slowly across the sky, taking months to move from one constellation to another.
- Jupiter has unique cloud properties. Jupiter’s upper atmosphere is divided into cloud belts and zones. They are mainly made of ammonia crystals, sulfur and mixtures of the two compounds.
- The Great Red Spot is a major storm on Jupiter. Furious for at least 350 years. It’s so big that three Earths could fit inside it.
- Jupiter’s interior is made of rock, metal, and hydrogen compounds.
- Beneath Jupiter’s massive atmosphere (consisting mainly of hydrogen) are layers of compressed hydrogen gas, liquid metallic hydrogen, and a core of ice, rock, and metal.
- Jupiter’s moon Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system.
- Jupiter’s moons are sometimes called Jovian moons, the largest of which are Ganymeade, Callisto Io and Europa. Ganymeade has a diameter of 5,268 km and is larger than the planet Mercury.
- Jupiter has a thin ring system.
- Its rings are mainly composed of dust particles ejected from Jupiter during impact by incoming comets and asteroids. The ring system begins about 92,000 kilometers above Jupiter’s cloud tops and extends more than 225,000 kilometers from the planet. They are between 2,000 and 12,500 kilometers thick.
Jupiter’s Great Red Spot
Located 22° south of Jupiter’s equator, the Great Red Spot has been a raging storm for at least 186 years. In fact, top estimates suggest that this red and turbulent storm may have existed for more than three and a half centuries. A giant red dot was seen on Jupiter, from which telescopes began to be used in the seventeenth century. However, it is unknown whether this is the same red spot we see today, or whether Jupiter has had many such storms that come and go over the centuries.
The red dot rotates counterclockwise and takes six (earth) days to fully rotate. Another mystery surrounding the red dot is what makes it red: scientists have put forward several theories (for example, the existence of red organic compounds), but no one knows for sure yet. This will be a question for future astronomy!
Jupiter’s atmosphere is special because it is the solar system’s largest planetary atmosphere. It consists of hydrogen and helium in roughly the same proportions as those found in the sun. However, it also contains much smaller amounts of other space gases such as ammonia, methane, and water. 90% of Jupiter’s atmosphere – a large part – is made up of hydrogen. It would be impossible for humans to breathe in this atmosphere. Therefore, if you are considering traveling to space to do astronomy research, you should wear a breathable suit when visiting this planet.