How do we use animals and plants? How Are Animals and Plants Made More Useful To Man? What do animals and plants need to survive?
How are animals made more useful to man?
Man has learned over the years the value of animals. It is our responsibility to do everything that we can to protect them. Scientists have studied and learned the best methods of breeding animals. The quality and quantity (amount) of meat, milk, wool, eggs and other any animal produce depends on the characteristics which it inherited from its parents. However, better care, such as food and shelter increases the quality and quantity of production.
The changes that we have made in animal development have been aimed at improving or increasing the food supply. Suppose that some sheep give better meat and others better wool. Careful selection and breeding have made it possible for the sheep to give both better meat and better wool.
Cattle are bred to produce either milk or meat. Chickens can be bred to lay more eggs or to produce better meat.
This is done by selective breeding in which we select animals with good qualities and let them reproduce. Animals of the same kind but with poor qualities are prevented from reproducing. In other words, we choose the animals that we want to reproduce. That’s why it is called selective breeding. If we cross two different members of same species we may be able to produce a new kind which has the best qualities of both. First choose a male and a female with the characteristics that we want. We then put them together and allow them to reproduce.
For example, a new kind of cow which produces more milk than its parents has been developed. This is done by choosing cows whose mothers and grandmothers were high milk producers. The cows are mated with bulls whose mothers and grandmothers were also high milk producers. Repeating the selective breeding process generation after generation develops a high milk producing kind of cow.
Another example is chickens. These can be developed to produce larger and tastier eggs.
The places where the animals live like chicken coops and barn must be:
- a- clean.
- b- well aired or ventilated,
- c- well lit.
- d- of a normal temperature.
- e- adequately provided with space for each animal to live comfortably.
- f- provided with food troughs at a level for the animal to eat comfortably and easily.
- g- provided with adequate entrances and exits.
How are plants made more useful to man?
Improved farming methods are used to produce new and better plants. Plant growers have used selective breeding to produce new varieties of crop plants, fruits and flowers (roses, carnations, and soon). We have also produced new varieties of wheat and rice which grow quickly, give more grains and are more resistant to disease.
Nectarine, which is made by crossing peaches with apricots is an example of a new variety of fruit.