10 Key Characteristics of Democratic Systems, What is Democracy?


Discover the defining features of democratic systems! This post outlines 10 key characteristics that are commonly associated with democracy, including free and fair elections, the rule of law, and protection of human rights. Read on to deepen your understanding of this important form of government.

Democracy is the form of government in which there is popular participation through the suffrage issued in free elections; that is to say that the inhabitants of the nation periodically elect their representatives by vote and thus exercise their power.

The word democracy comes from the Greek language, where “demos” means people, people, and “kratos” means power, authority. The concept of democracy is born precisely during the height of Greek civilization, with the growth of city-states or “polis”. These ideas represented the beginnings of the political institutions that throughout history tried to protect the common good and the participation of citizens in the decisions that affected their destinies.

Democracy is considered today as the most just and convenient form of government to live in harmony. In addition to periodic elections, in a democracy there is a separation of powers, in such a way that the laws are discussed, sanctions are provided for those who do not comply with them, and a consensual decision is made about a diversity of issues through the vote of the legislators, elected by popular vote. That is, democracy has adopted the figure of representation. For the representation to be solid and possible in practice, democratic systems require the formation of political parties.

The political parties, through their platforms, expose their positions on different topics (economy, health, education, work, etc.), and citizens, through voting, adhere to the position they consider most convenient.


In opposition to democracies, there are absolute monarchies and dictatorships or de facto regimes, of any sign.

10 Characteristics Of Democracy - What is Democracy?

Characteristics Of Democracy

1. Equality and Freedom

Yes, equality and freedom are two fundamental characteristics of democratic systems. In a democracy, citizens are considered equal before the law, regardless of their gender, race, religion, or socio-economic status. This means that every individual has the same legal rights and opportunities to participate in the political process, and no one is above the law.

Freedom is also a critical component of democracy. Citizens have the right to free speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, and the freedom to express their opinions without fear of retribution or censorship. In a democratic society, individuals have the right to choose their own leaders, form and join political parties, and participate in peaceful protests or demonstrations.

Furthermore, democratic governments are accountable to their citizens and are required to act in their best interests. This accountability is often achieved through regular free and fair elections, where citizens can vote for the candidates of their choice and have a say in how their government is run. Democratic systems also have independent judiciary systems to ensure that the rule of law is upheld and that individual rights are protected.

Overall, equality and freedom are two critical features of democratic systems that ensure that citizens have a voice in their government and that their rights are protected.

2. Representativeness

Representativeness is another key characteristic of democratic systems. In a democracy, citizens elect representatives who act on their behalf and make decisions that affect the entire community. These representatives can be elected through free and fair elections, where citizens have the opportunity to vote for the candidate of their choice.


Representativeness ensures that all voices in a community are heard, and that decisions are made through a fair and transparent process. Elected representatives are accountable to the citizens they represent and must act in their best interests. This accountability is often achieved through regular elections, where citizens have the opportunity to vote out representatives who are not acting in their best interests.

Moreover, representativeness also means that elected representatives should reflect the diversity of the community they represent. This includes diversity in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and socio-economic status. Having diverse representation ensures that all members of the community have a voice in the decision-making process and that policies and laws reflect the needs and values of the entire community.

Overall, representativeness is a critical characteristic of democratic systems as it ensures that citizens have a say in how their government is run and that decisions are made through a fair and transparent process that reflects the needs and values of the entire community.

3. Constitutionality

Constitutionality is another defining characteristic of democratic systems. A constitution is a written document that outlines the basic principles and rules of a government, including the rights and responsibilities of citizens, the structure and powers of government institutions, and the limits on the government’s authority.

In a democracy, the constitution is the highest law of the land, and all laws and government actions must be in compliance with it. The constitution sets the framework for the government’s powers and establishes a system of checks and balances to prevent any one branch of government from becoming too powerful.

Constitutionality ensures that the rights and freedoms of citizens are protected, and that the government operates within the limits set by law. It also provides stability and continuity by establishing a framework for governance that transcends individual leaders or political parties.

In addition, constitutional protections ensure that the government cannot act arbitrarily or infringe on the rights of its citizens. These protections often include provisions for freedom of speech, religion, and the press, as well as protections against unlawful searches and seizures and cruel and unusual punishment.

Overall, constitutionality is a crucial characteristic of democratic systems that establishes a framework for governance, protects the rights and freedoms of citizens, and ensures that the government operates within the limits set by law.

4. Decentralization of decisions

Decentralization of decisions is another important characteristic of democratic systems. In a decentralized system, power is distributed among multiple levels of government, and decisions are made at the local level by elected officials who are accountable to their constituents.

Decentralization ensures that decisions are made by those who are most affected by them, and that the needs and concerns of different regions or communities are taken into account. It also promotes greater citizen participation in the decision-making process, as local officials are more accessible and responsive to their constituents.

Decentralization also provides a system of checks and balances, as power is distributed among multiple levels of government. This ensures that no single individual or group has too much power or control over the decision-making process.


Moreover, decentralization promotes innovation and experimentation, as different regions or communities can try out new policies or programs and learn from one another’s successes and failures. This can lead to more effective and efficient governance, as policies and programs are tailored to the unique needs and circumstances of different regions or communities.

Overall, decentralization of decisions is a critical characteristic of democratic systems that ensures that decisions are made by those who are most affected by them, promotes citizen participation and accountability, provides a system of checks and balances, and fosters innovation and experimentation in governance.

10 Characteristics Of Democracy - What is Democracy?

5. Human rights

Human rights are a fundamental characteristic of democratic systems. These are rights that are inherent to all human beings, regardless of their nationality, race, gender, religion, or any other status. Human rights include civil and political rights, such as freedom of speech and assembly, as well as economic, social, and cultural rights, such as the right to education, healthcare, and a decent standard of living.

Democratic systems uphold human rights by guaranteeing the rule of law and providing legal protections for individuals against violations of their rights. Democratic governments also create institutions, such as human rights commissions, that promote and protect human rights, investigate allegations of violations, and hold those responsible accountable.

Furthermore, democratic systems ensure that all citizens are treated equally before the law, and that discrimination on the basis of any status is prohibited. This includes the protection of minority rights, such as the rights of ethnic or religious minorities.

Moreover, democratic systems allow for the participation of civil society organizations and advocacy groups, which promote and defend human rights. This participation ensures that the voices of marginalized groups are heard and that their rights are protected.

Overall, the protection of human rights is a critical characteristic of democratic systems. It ensures that all individuals are treated with dignity and respect, regardless of their background, and that they are able to exercise their rights and freedoms without fear of persecution or discrimination.

6. Pure and impure democracies

The concepts of pure and impure democracies are often discussed in political science, but there is no clear consensus on their definitions or characteristics. However, generally speaking, a pure democracy is a system in which all citizens have an equal say in the decision-making process, often through direct democracy mechanisms such as referendums or town hall meetings.

On the other hand, an impure democracy is a system in which the decision-making process is not entirely democratic and may be influenced by factors such as wealth, power, or special interests. This can occur in representative democracies, where citizens elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf, but the political process may be dominated by elites or special interest groups.

In an impure democracy, there may be restrictions on the ability of citizens to participate in the decision-making process, such as voter suppression or limitations on free speech. The government may also engage in actions that violate human rights or suppress dissent.


It’s worth noting that the terms “pure” and “impure” are often used in a value-laden way, with “pure” democracy seen as an ideal, while “impure” democracy is seen as flawed or imperfect. However, in practice, all democracies are to some extent impure, and the challenge is to work towards greater inclusivity, transparency, and accountability in the decision-making process.

Overall, the concepts of pure and impure democracies are useful for understanding the complexity of democratic systems and the various factors that can influence the decision-making process. However, it is important to recognize that democracy is an ongoing process that requires continual efforts to ensure that all voices are heard and that the decision-making process is fair and transparent.

7. Types of democracies

There are several types of democracies, including:

  1. Direct Democracy: In a direct democracy, all citizens have an equal say in the decision-making process, and decisions are made through popular vote. This type of democracy is best suited for small communities and is less practical in large-scale societies.
  2. Representative Democracy: In a representative democracy, citizens elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf. This is the most common form of democracy in modern societies, and it allows for the efficient functioning of government while still allowing citizens to have a say in the decision-making process.
  3. Presidential Democracy: In a presidential democracy, the head of government is directly elected by the people, and there is a clear separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches of government.
  4. Parliamentary Democracy: In a parliamentary democracy, the head of government is selected by the legislature, and the executive and legislative branches are more closely integrated.
  5. Constitutional Democracy: In a constitutional democracy, the government operates according to a written constitution that outlines the powers and limitations of the government and guarantees individual rights and freedoms.
  6. Social Democracy: Social democracy is a type of democracy that emphasizes social welfare and economic equality, and it typically involves a greater role for the government in providing social services and regulating the economy.

Overall, there are many different types of democracies, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The choice of a particular type of democracy depends on factors such as the size and complexity of the society, the cultural and historical context, and the values and priorities of the citizens.

8. Guarantees to rights

Democracy is based on the principles of majority rule and individual rights. In every democratic society there are guarantees for individual rights, especially considering the rights of minorities and dissidents.

9. Political participation and pluralism

Democracy is based on political participation and pluralism. Understanding politics as the mechanism to achieve overarching objectives in a society, in which there are always groups with different interests, sometimes even opposed, is fundamental for any democratic process civilized citizen participation, with political parties and leaders who listen and respect the wills of citizens.

10 Characteristics Of Democracy - What is Democracy?

10. Complementary democratic tools

In addition to the formal structures of government, there are several complementary democratic tools that can enhance citizen participation and strengthen democratic processes. Here are some examples:

  1. Civil Society Organizations: These are non-governmental organizations that promote civic engagement and advocacy on issues of public interest. They can include groups such as community associations, advocacy groups, and faith-based organizations. Civil society organizations can provide a platform for citizens to participate in the democratic process and hold their governments accountable.
  2. Media Freedom: An independent media that is free from government control or censorship is an essential tool for democracy. A free media provides citizens with accurate and objective information about government policies and actions, allowing them to make informed decisions and hold their leaders accountable.
  3. Education: Education plays a vital role in promoting democratic values and practices. Education helps citizens understand their rights and responsibilities, as well as the workings of government and political systems. This can encourage participation and help citizens make informed decisions.
  4. Digital Tools: Digital tools such as social media platforms, mobile apps, and online forums can be used to facilitate citizen participation and enhance transparency in government. Digital tools can enable citizens to engage in the democratic process more easily, such as by submitting feedback, participating in surveys, or tracking government decisions.
  5. Citizen Initiatives: Citizen initiatives, such as referendums, petitions, and town hall meetings, can provide opportunities for citizens to directly participate in decision-making processes. This can increase public engagement and accountability in government.

Overall, complementary democratic tools can help strengthen and enhance the functioning of democratic systems. They provide avenues for citizens to engage in the democratic process, hold their leaders accountable, and ensure that their voices are heard.

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