10 Characteristics Of Polar Climate – Classification of cold climates


Cold climates can be subdivided into:

  • Cold continental climate. It is found in the north and northwest of Europe, Canada, Alaska and south and central Siberia.
  • Tundra climate. It occurs in much of Siberia, part of the Arctic and Antarctic continent.
  • Polar climate. It is present only in the Arctic and Antarctic.
    Mountainous climate. They are found in mountain areas where the peaks exceed 2,000 meters (near the poles) or 3,500 meters in areas near the equator.
Polar weather description

The polar or frigid climate is found within cold climates and is characterized by scarce rainfall and temperatures below 0 ° C with a low percentage (or zero) of humidity.


10 Characteristics Of Polar Climate - Classification of cold climates

Characteristics Of Polar Climate

1. Location

The polar climate is present in natural regions such as the North Pole (Arctic Circle) and South Pole (Antarctica).

2. Temperatures

As mentioned above, this is the coldest climate on the planet and the temperatures oscillate between 8 ° or 9 ° C and -88 ° C.


3. Seasons

Although the 4 seasons of the year correspond to classification parameters, the truth is that in areas such as the Arctic or the Antarctic, these 4 stations are not present (tangibly). Rather, there are two seasons where the winter is extremely cold and extensive, while the temperatures in the summer months do not exceed 10 ° C.

4. Inclination of the Earth

Because of the angle of inclination of the Earth with respect to these 2 poles, the days and nights last for 6 months. That is to say, while in the North Pole six months pass without the sun being hidden (rather it borders the horizon line), in the South Pole the sunlight does not arrive during this time.

10 Characteristics Of Polar Climate - Classification of cold climates

5. Precipitation

The precipitations are practically null (around 300 mm annual) and always fall in solid form (snowflakes).

6. Winds

There are strong winds called nevazón or blizzards that are characterized by the presence of storms with strong winds loaded with snow.

7. Landscape

The type of landscape at the poles is white, thanks to snow and ice.


8. Polar climate flora

Since the soil is mostly frozen, the presence of plant life is difficult. However, in times of temperate temperatures mosses, lichens and small shrubs grow in certain areas.

9. Polar climate wildlife

The fauna present in the polar climate is also scarce, limited to a few mammals, birds and aquatic animals.

As a characteristic of the polar climate, the mammals of this region mostly have a white coat, in order to protect themselves from the attacks of other predators and to be devoured. Examples are the polar bear, arctic fox, arctic wolf, arctic hare and reindeer, among others.

Birds generally migrate in winter to warmer coasts. For its part, the aquatic fauna stands out from the rest and presents a greater variety among those found, penguins, seals, whales and fish.

10 Characteristics Of Polar Climate - Classification of cold climates

10. Population

Human life turns out to be difficult because of the lack of vegetation, scarcity of fauna and the frozen ground almost constantly (which prevents the possibility of crops). However, there are certain small communities in the Arctic inhabited by Inuit and Lapps. On the other hand, in the Antarctic, small scientific communities are installed for the study of the place.

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