The horse is a mammal belonging to the family of equidae. There are 86 different races in the world.
Three groups of wild mammals are included in the horse family: in the first group are the zebras (originating in Africa); in the second we find the donkeys (including the African wild ass, the kiang and the onager who live in Asia) and, finally, the horses themselves, with the scientific name “Equus ferus caballus”.
Horses can be domesticated, those that man managed to tame with different purposes are very useful in livestock or sport, as well as in psychological and physical rehabilitation therapies (equinotherapy) and for transport in certain rural contexts. At the same time, we find horses that live in a wild state.
Among the types of wild horses we find mainly Tarpan and Przewalski’s horse. The first is native to a region located between Eastern Europe and Mongolia, and became extinct at the beginning of the 19th century. Meanwhile, Przewalski’s horse is the only wild species we can find today.
The females are called mares, while the male calf is called a foal and the female filly is raised.
Characteristics Of Horses
1. Physical characteristics
Horses are animals that physically have a large bearing. Its neck is characterized by being long, including bristles of important length and an extremely elongated head with two erect ears. The tail also stands out for its length.
The height of a horse is measured from the cross to the ground and will vary in correlation to the race; some reach heights of 185 centimeters. Also the weight will depend on the race or variety, oscillating mainly between 390 and 1,000 kilograms.
They are herbivores and feed on a wide variety of herbs and grasses. Horses need an adequate diet to avoid health problems, prevailing pathologies such as anemia or obesity, among others.
3. Life expectancy
The life of the wild horses extends until the 25 years approximately, whereas the domestic ones can live about 40 years. It should be remembered that until 4 years of age these mammals have not reached adulthood, only from then on are they prepared to be tamed and assembled.
Wild horses, scarce due to hunting and the constant pursuit of man, are found in deserts, savannas and grasslands of Asia and Africa. Domesticated breeds can be found at all points of the globe.
How do horses breed? The gestation takes place over 11 months, and only on exceptional occasions does the birth of more than one baby occur. Around 4 years of age, horses reach sexual maturity.
Domestic horses have problems in the sexual coupling, sometimes it is necessary that mamporreros direct the member of the horse to fecundate the female.
6. Sports use
Nowadays horses are used for different sports activities thanks to their special conditions, including jumping, equestrian, polo, dressage, charreria, duck, cowboy dressage and other varieties.
The horse needs a space in which he feels comfortable, vaccination periodically and internal and external deworming. It also requires dental care: it is necessary that every six months a veterinarian lime the odontofitos that are commonly formed. In addition, the veterinarian should perform a general review at least twice a year.
The horse communicates with the other members of the pack, transmitting their emotions. They also establish a hierarchy of domain without violence. They are not aggressive and choose to flee before fighting.
9. Types of temperament
The horses are divided into:
Cold-blooded horses: they are the calmest.
Horses of warm blood: crossing cold-blooded and warm-blooded horses.
Horses of warm blood, denominated purebred horses: they are of great temperament and very nervous.
The horses stand out for their speed, ductility and elegance of movement, so some are used in jumping competitions, races and exhibitions.
These animals have three ways of moving: by step, at a jog (they can reach speeds of 15 kilometers per hour) and at a gallop (they reach 65 kilometers per hour).