The circulatory system is a complex system of structures, organs and blood vessels. It is responsible for transporting and feeding nutrients from and to the cells and tissues throughout the body.
In addition to transporting nutrients, the circulatory system transports oxygen throughout the body.
The circulatory system is composed of one of the main organs of the body, the heart. This organ is a muscle that pumps blood to nourish the rest of the body. This pumping work can be done thanks to nerve impulses.
The heart is an organ that functions uninterruptedly from the moment of conception (when it forms the embryo in the mother’s belly) until the moment of the death of the living being.
The circulatory system is the combination of the functioning of the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, blood vessels and blood; and the lymphatic system transports lymph unidirectionally to the heart.
Characteristics Of Circulatory System
1. General function
The function of the circulatory system is to pump blood so that different nutrients and oxygen reach the interior of the cells of each organ.
2. Specific functions
Transports nutrients from the cells to the organs
Transports waste products
Regulates body temperature
Regulates the water balance
It transports defense molecules, hormones and communication (taking information to the brain, for example).
Is a participant in reproduction
3. The heart
The main organ of the circulatory system is the heart. This is located in the thoracic cavity. This is the body responsible for generating blood to reach the different organs of the body.
4. Pumping methods
The heart, may have two pumps or four. The first is known as an open system. This has two cameras, while the second is known as a closed system and has four cameras.
Respiratory system with heart of 2 cameras (open system). In this case the blood flows freely throughout the body but the oxygen is transported through tubes that open to the outside. Here is the circulatory system of insects and arachnids.
Respiratory system with heart of 4 cameras (closed system). In this case, the blood circulates through the blood vessels and this blood does not leave the vessels. Mammals, in general, have this type of closed system.
5. Blood vessels
Parts of the circulatory system.
Within the circulatory system are the blood vessels. These might be:
Veins. They are the blood vessels that carry blood back from the organs to the heart. This return lacks oxygen and nutrients.
Arteries They are the blood vessels that come from the heart loaded with oxygen to the different organs. This blood always has more pressure than that which circulates in the veins.
Capillaries They are tiny blood vessels of just 1 millimeter. In them an exchange takes place between the blood and the liquid that is in the cells of the tissues (called interstitial liquid). Oxygen passes through the capillary wall. This way it enters the organism (from the tissue to the blood) and the carbon dioxide comes out.
6. The blood
Blood is the vehicle through which oxygen and nutrients travel through blood vessels. To put it another way, blood is like the flow of a river. This is red in color and contains:
Red blood cells. They are the ones that transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.
Platelets. They are responsible for stopping bleeding and favor the coagulation of blood.
White blood cells They are responsible for defending the body from viruses and bacteria. In other words, they are the body’s defenses.
Plasma. Plasma serves as a transport of nutrients but is also, in itself, a substance that contains various proteins.
7. Lymphatic system
The lymphatic system produces and transports lymph from the tissues to the blood vessels. The lymphatic system is indispensable for the body’s immune system. The lymph is transported unidirectionally to the heart.
8. Circulatory system diseases
Hereditary or congenital diseases
9. Risk factor’s
10. The case of plants
The plants do not have blood. However, they are composed of a substance through which different nutrients of the plant circulate. It is through xylem that plants capture nutrients from their roots. This is how the sap travels from the roots and is distributed throughout the plant.
On the other hand there is the phloem which is a type of tissue through which different substances pass for their subsequent storage.
This process begins when the plant takes water from its roots. From there, the plant forms the crude sap that is transported by the xylem to the leaves. This sap is used to produce photosynthesis.